LAMbDA is a learning tool to aid in the identification of cranial landmarks. This interface helps practitioners to correctly locate cranial landmarks while providing a central location for landmarks frequently used in anthropological studies.


In the photogrammetry model displayed above, you may manipulate the cranium by holding and dragging the cursor in the direction you wish to view the model, as well as zooming in and out on specific landmarks to view detailed placement. You may filter for specific types of cranial landmarks (i.e. Type 1, 2, or 3) by using the filter feature in the top right corner. To quickly view the definition of a specific landmark, as well as recording tips,  scroll over the indicator point for the desired point. If you need additional information for this point, you may click on the indicator and the site will redirect to your landmark within the full manual.

Additional Tips

The home menu provides several sources for additional information. The “Manual” tab will direct you to the manual developed for the LAMbDA interface. This manual includes the full suite of landmarks included in the interface with their associated definitions, exceptions to account for human variation, and diagrams and photographs demonstrating landmark placement. Each definition will also state the measurements in which the landmark is used and the abbreviation used in  the 3Skull software (2004).

The “External Links” tab provides several additional lines of information, such as teaching videos and other useful web links.  The “References” tab lists references which we find useful for craniometric and geometric morphometric analyses, as well original sources for cranial landmark definitions.


We would like to give a special thanks to Dr. Joseph Hefner who has provided feedback and suggestions throughout the creation of this project. We would also like to thank Dr. Nawaporn Techataweewan and Kandus Linde for providing images used in the manual.