Original Sources: Definitions and Diagrams

Broca P. Instructions craniologiques et craniometriques. Mem de la Societe D’Anthropologie de Paris. 1875;2:1-203.

Buikstra JE and Ubelaker DH, eds. Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series No. 44; 1994.

Caple J and Stephan C. A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 2016;130:863-879.

Fleischman JM, Crowder C, Pierce ML, Spradley MK. Validation, verification, and performance checks of anthropological equipment and software: The importance of quality assurance in forensic anthropology laboratories. 2018. Poster presented at the 70th AAFS Meeting in Seattle, Washington.

Howells W. Cranial variation in man: A study by multivariate analysis of patterns of differences among recent human populations. Cambridge: The Museum;1973.

Kollman J, Ranke J and Virchow R. Verstandigung uber ein gemeinsames craniometrisches verfahren. Correspondez-Blatt der deutschen Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte. 1883;14:1-8.

Langley NR, Meadows Jantz L, Ousley SD, Jantz RL, Milner G. Data Collection Procedures for Forensic Skeletal Material. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee; 2016.

Martin R. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in Systematischer Darstellung. Jena:Gustav Fischer; 1928.

Martin R, and R Knussmann. Anthropologie: Handbuch der vergleichended Biologie des menschen. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer; 1988.

Moore-Jansen PH, Ousley SD and Jantz RL. Data collection procedures for forensic skeletal material. Knoxville:The University of Tennessee Forensic Anthropology Series; 1994

Ousley SD. 3Skull Version 2.1.111P. Mercyhurst University, Erie; 2004.

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Applied Landmark Studies

Dudzik B and Kolatorowicz A. Craniometric data analysis and estimation of biodistance. In: Pilloud M, Hefner J, eds. Biological distance analysis: Forensic and bioarchaeological perspectives. London: Academic Press; 2016:35-60.

Hefner JT and Warren MW. Possible achondroplastic dwarf skull from Montevideo, Uruguay. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2016;61(6):1671-1677. DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.13186

Jantz RL. Cranial change in Americans: 1850-1975. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2001;46(4):784-787.

Jantz RL and Meadows-Jantz L. Secular change in craniofacial morphology. American Journal of Human Biology. 2000;12(3):327-338. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6300(200005/06)12:3<327::AID-AJHB3>3.0.CO;2-1

Jantz RL and Owsley DW. Variation among early north american crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2001;114:146-155. DOI: 10.1002/1096-8644(200102)114:2<146::AID-AJPA1014>3.0.CO;2-E

Jonke E, Prossinger H, Bookstein F, Schafer K, Bernhard M and Freudenthaler J. Secular trends in the facial skull from the 19th century to the present, analyzed with geometric morphometrics. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2007;132(1):63-70.

McDowell J, L’Abbe E and Kenyhercz M. Nasal aperture shape evaluation between black and white South Africans. Forensic Science International. 2012;222:397-e1.

Weisensee K and Jantz RL. Secular changes in craniofacial morphology of the Portuguese using geometric morphometrics. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2011;145:548-559. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21531

Wescott DJ and Jantz RL. Assessing craniofacial secular change in American blacks and whites using geometric morphometry. In: Slice D, ed. Modern morphometrics in physical anthropology. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2005:231-245.


Christensen AM, Passalacqua NV, Bartelink EJ. Ancestry Estimation. In: Forensic Anthropology: Current methods and practice. Oxford: Elsevier; 2013:223-242.